----------------------------- -----------------------------
Volume 10, Issue 1 (Spring 2023)                   J Prevent Med 2023, 10(1): 60-71 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 990244
Ethics code: IR.HUMS.REC.1399.231

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Fallahi S, Ezati Rad R, Rafati S, Shahabi N, Kamalzadeh H, Mousavi S M, et al . Body Mass Index of People in Quarantine During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Hormozgan, Iran and its Related Factors. J Prevent Med 2023; 10 (1) :60-71
URL: http://jpm.hums.ac.ir/article-1-608-en.html
1- Cardiovascular Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
2- Student Research Committee, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
3- Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
4- Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
5- Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
6- Deputy of Research and Technology, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
Full-Text [PDF 1720 kb]   (482 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (737 Views)
Full-Text:   (366 Views)
After the spread of the coronavirus and its rapid transmission from infected people to healthy people even in the asymptomatic phase, it became a fundamental and important problem for health care systems in the world. With the declaration of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 12, 2020, lockdown and quarantine methods were applied in all countries of the world to prevent the spread and minimize the transmission of this infectious disease. Many factors, including the loss of individual freedom, uncertainty about the disease, staying at home for a long time, and excessive fatigue can all affect the health status and can lead to weight gain and cardiovascular diseases. During quarantine, due to the fear and worry about the lack of food in the future, people bought and consumed large amounts of packaged food for a long time instead of fresh food. Considering the length of the quarantine and its consequences on people’s health, and following the changes in the lifestyle during this period, it is very necessary and important to examine the living conditions of people in these conditions. Considering the economic, social and cultural conditions of Bandar Abbas city, this study aims to identify the consequences of COVID-19 pandemic by evaluating the body mass index (BMI) of people in quarantine in Hormozgan province.

This cross-sectional study was conducted during a period of 3 months from July to August 2020 in Hormozgan province. The study population consists of people over 15 years old living in Hormozgan province. The inclusion criteria were age at least 15 years and consent to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, history of using metformin, and thyroid disorders. According to the method of data collection, there was no limit for the number of participants. They were asked to provide the latest information before the outbreak of COVID-19 (time 1: January and February 2020) and after the outbreak of COVID-19 (time 2: July, August and September 2020) according to the items of the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part surveys demographic information including age, gender, marital status, level of education, and employment status. The second part surveys information on weight and height, sleep quality, and physical activity. 

Based on the results of paired t-test, the increase in mean BMI after quarantine was statistically significant for people aged 30 years and older compared to younger people (P=0.001). For women, married people and residents of urban areas, a significant difference was also seen in BMI compared to their counterparts (P<0.001). Unemployed people and employees experienced more BMI change after quarantine than others (P<0.05). The participants spent an average of 5.52 hours online and 7.36 hours for doing activities in sitting position. Most of the participants reported that they watched movies and surfed in the internet for entertainment during the quarantine. Marital status, difficulty in falling asleep and change in physical activity had an effect on the BMI change after quarantine. The increase in BMI after quarantine for married people was 0.44 more (P=0.023). In addition, the average BMI change in people who had difficulty falling asleep was 0.37 less than that in people with no sleeping problems (P=0.049). Increase in BMI in people whose physical activity decreased compared to the pre-pandemic time, was about 0.45 more than others (P=0.005).

During the quarantine, due to the disruption of daily life processes and work activities, people experienced difficult conditions at home. Since no necessary preparations had been made in advance to deal with COVID-19, it made it more difficult for all age groups to understand and tolerate the situation. Lack of awareness of existing conditions, worry and fear and anxiety due to mass media news, lack of access to healthy and fresh food, and storing food for freezing, inactivity and reduction of normal daily activities, spending a lot of time watching movies and surfing in the internet, disrupted sleep patterns, and change in lifestyle can increase the rate of overeating, BMI and, thus, obesity in the future. Until the conditions return to a normal state, proper health and hygiene measures should be considered for these conditions because of the negative consequences of quarantine. This study was conducted during the outbreak of COVID-19. For this reason, the most important limitation of the study was the use of online questionnaires, and not being able to do random sampling and matching based on age, sex, and place of residence, and not being able to measure the height and weight of samples accurately.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study was reviewed by the Ethics Committee Council of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences and approved by the Ethics Committee (Code: IR.HUMS.REC.1399.231). The personal information of the participants in this project was reviewed and analyzed confidentially and anonymously. 

This study was carried out with the financial support of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences Research Vice-Chancellor (Grant No.: 990244).

Authors' contributions
Reviewing the texts and writing the article: Soghra Fallahi, Roghayeh Ezati Rad, Nahid Shahabi, Seyed Masoumeh Mousavi, Masoumeh Khairandish; Online questionnaire design and data collection: Hassamadin Kamalzadeh; Sources, preparation of articles according to journal format; Masoumeh Latifi; Writing and final revision: Marzieh NikParver; Statistical analysis: Shideh Rafati. 

Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.

The authors would like to express their gratitude to the participants for their sincere cooperation in this study. 


  1. Abbas AM, Fathy x, Fawzy AT, Salem AS, Shawky MS. The mutual effects of COVID-19 and obesity. Obes Med. 2020; 19:100250.[DOI:10.1016/j.obmed.2020. 100250] [PMID] [PMCID]
  2. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. Lancet. 2020; 395(10227):912-20. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8] [PMID]
  3. Parmet WE, Sinha MS. COVID-19 - the law and limits of quarantine. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(15):e28 [DOI:10.1056/NEJMp2004211] [PMID]
  4. Rosenberger LH, Riccio LM, Campbell KT, Politano AD, Sawyer RG. Quarantine, isolation, and cohorting: From cholera to Klebsiella. Surg Infect. 2012; 13(2):69-73. [DOI:10.1089/sur.2011.067] [PMID] [PMCID]
  5. Conway TL, Vickers RR Jr, Ward HW, Rahe RH. Occupational stress and variation in cigarette, coffee, and alcohol consumption. J Health Soc Behav. 1981; 22(2):155-65. [PMID]
  6. Mattioli AV, Ballerini Puviani M. Lifestyle at time of COVID-19: How could quarantine affect cardiovascular risk. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2020; 14(3):240-2. [DOI:10.1177/1559827620918808] [PMID] [PMCID]
  7. Stammers L, Wong L, Brown R, Price S, Ekinci E, Sumithran P. Identifying stress-related eating in behavioural research: A review. Horm Behav. 2020; 124:104752. [DOI:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104752] [PMID]
  8. Moynihan AB, van Tilburg WA, Igou ER, Wisman A, Donnelly AE, Mulcaire JB. Eaten up by boredom: Consuming food to escape awareness of the bored self. Front Psychol. 2015; 6:369. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00369] [PMID] [PMCID]
  9. Yılmaz C, Gökmen V. Neuroactive compounds in foods: Occurrence, mechanism and potential health effects. Food Res Int. 2020; 128:108744. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108744] [PMID]
  10. Alsarhan A, Shoiab A, Gardouh A, Khwaldeh A, Alqaraleh M. Obesity risk throughout collective quarantine for the COVID-19. Rom J Diabetes Nutrition Metab Dis. 2022; 29(3):280-3. [Link]
  11. Sciomer S, Moscucci F, Maffei S, Gallina S, Mattioli AV. Prevention of cardiovascular risk factors in women: The lifestyle paradox and stereotypes we need to defeat. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2019; 26(6):609-10. [DOI:10.1177/2047487318810560] [PMID]
  12. Mattioli AV, Coppi F, Migaldi M, Scicchitano P, Ciccone MM, Farinetti A. Relationship between Mediterranean diet and asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in a population of pre-menopausal women. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017; 27(11):985-90. [DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2017.09.011] [PMID]
  13. Rodríguez-Martín BC, Meule A. Food craving: New contributions on its assessment, moderators, and consequences. Front Psychol. 2015; 6:21. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00021] [PMID] [PMCID]
  14. Nederkoorn C, Smulders FT, Jansen A. Cephalic phase responses, craving and food intake in normal subjects. Appetite. 2000; 35(1):45-55. [PMID]
  15. Mediouni M, Madiouni R, Kaczor-Urbanowicz KE. COVID-19: How the quarantine could lead to the depreobesity. Obes Med. 2020; 19:100255. [DOI:10.1016/j.obmed.2020.100255] [PMID] [PMCID]
  16. Mattioli AV, Sciomer S, Cocchi C, Maffei S, Gallina S. Quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak: Changes in diet and physical activity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2020; 30(9):1409-17. [DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2020.05.020] [PMID] [PMCID]
  17. Fedewa MV, Das BM, Evans EM, Dishman RK. Change in weight and adiposity in college students: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2014; 47(5):641-52. [DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.07.035] [PMID]
  18. Wheatley D, Bickerton C. Measuring changes in subjective well-being from engagement in the arts, culture and sport. J Cult Econ. 2019; 43(3):421-42. [DOI:10.1007/s10824-019-09342-7]
  19. Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Cinelli G, Bigioni G, Soldati L, Attinà A, et al. Psychological aspects and eating habits during COVID-19 home confinement: Results of EHLC-COVID-19 Italian online survey. Nutrients. 2020; 12(7):2152. [DOI:10.3390/nu12072152] [PMID] [PMCID]
  20. Jeong H, Yim HW, Song YJ, Ki M, Min JA, Cho J, et al. Mental health status of people isolated due to Middle East respiratory syndrome. Epidemiol Health. 2016; 38:e2016048. [DOI:10.4178/epih.e2016048] [PMID] [PMCID]
  21. Urzeala C, Duclos M, Chris Ugbolue U, Bota A, Berthon M, Kulik K, et al. COVID-19 lockdown consequences on body mass index and perceived fragility related to physical activity: A worldwide cohort study. Health Expect. 2022; 25(2):522-31. [DOI:10.1111/hex.13282] [PMID] [PMCID]
  22. Gholami A, Sadeghi Yarandi M, Ghasemi M, Sadeghi Yarandi M, Ghasemi Koozekonan A, Soltanzadeh A. [Effect of coronavirus epidemic on job stress and mental workload: A longitudinal study in a chemical industry (Persian)]. Iran Occup Health. 2020; 17(S1):81-9. [Link]
  23. Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, Ho CS, et al. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17(5):1729. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17051729] [PMID] [PMCID]
  24. Mokarami H, Choobineh A, Nazifi M. [A systematic review on the available questionnaires for the assessment of work-related stressors (Persian)]. Iran Occup Health J. 2017; 14(5):62-74. [Link]
  25. Gallo LA, Gallo TF, Young SL, Moritz KM, Akison LK. The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 on energy intake and physical activity levels in Australian university students. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1865. [DOI:10.3390/nu12061865] [PMID] [PMCID]
Type of Study: Orginal | Subject: general Hygiene
Received: 2022/02/12 | Accepted: 2023/07/1 | Published: 2023/07/1

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb