----------------------------- -----------------------------
Volume 10, Issue 2 (Summer 2023)                   J Prevent Med 2023, 10(2): 130-143 | Back to browse issues page

Research code: 162376434
Ethics code: IR.SSRC.REC.1400.125


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Fattahi M, Rahimi M, Naderi A, Akhdar S. Effect of 6 Weeks TRX on Upper and Lower Extremity Function in Women With the Lower Crossed Syndrome. J Prevent Med 2023; 10 (2) :130-143
URL: http://jpm.hums.ac.ir/article-1-615-en.html
1- Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Corrective Exercise and Sport Injury, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Sport Sciences, School of Sport Science, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Semnan, Iran.
4- Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
Full-Text [PDF 5828 kb]   (650 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (683 Views)
Full-Text:   (1426 Views)
Introduction
Proper body alignment has negative effects on athletic performance. In fact, maintaining proper body alignment allows an athlete to focus on the proper movement and performance. The presence of a healthy motor control system, in addition to improving performance, can prevent injuries during heavy sports activities. The lower crossed syndrome (LCS) is characterized by tightness or shortness of hip flexors and lumbar extensors and the weakness of the abdominal, gluteal, and hamstring muscles. Such imbalance can have harmful effects on static and dynamic balance, especially when walking. 
This syndrome causes anterior tilt of the pelvis, increased lumbar lordosis, and slight flexion of the hip joint. Studies have shown that, compared to the normal posture, lordotic postures can increase the compressive loading on the posterior spinal structures and increase the stress on the intervertebral disc. Also, the increase in the concentration of force on a relatively small part of the facet joints can cause more stress to be concentrated on the tissue of the facet joints. The lack of muscle stability in the lumbar-pelvic area can affect the position of the pelvis and subsequently change the angle of the lumbar arch, leading to postural abnormalities in this area, including hyperlordosis. One of the factors that play an important role in lumbopelvic stability and spinal deviations is the function of core muscles (abdominal mucles, multiceps, pelvic floor muscles, diaphragm). The main role of these muscles is to help stabilize the spine, pelvis, and trunk in basic and functional movements.
 Therefore, their strengthening can improve the neuromuscular system and support the spine, especially in the lumbopelvic area. According to the results of numerous studies on the effects of sports exercises on balance and improving performance and, on the other hand, the useful and accessible benefits of TRX exercises, and given that we found no study in Iran or other countries on the effect of TRX exercises on the performance of the upper and lower extremities in middle-aged women with LCS, this study aims to examine whether six weeks of TRX exercises have an effect on upper and lower extremity function of middle-aged women with LCS in Iran.

Methods
This is a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design. The study population includes all non-athlete middle-aged women with LCS in Marivan county, Iran. Of these, 30 were purposefully selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The criteria for entering the study were the absence of pregnancy, age 30-40 years, general mental health, suffering from LCS (having a hyperlordosis angle above 52.35), and consent to participate. Exclusion criteria were a history of surgery in the past year, any lower limb injury in the past 6 months, neurological or central nervous system deficits, and irregular participation in the exercise sessions. After selection, samples were randomly divided into two control and TRX groups. Their height was evaluated by tape measure and their weight was measured by a scale (model BPS-9370). Then, their upper extremity function was measured by the Y balance test and Davis test, and lower extremity function was measured by the side hop test and the square hop test. Then, 6 weeks of TRX exercises were performed as a training protocol. After 6 weeks, the subjects were tested again under the same conditions.

Results
Paired t-test results for intra-group comparison of upper and lower extremity function variables in TRX and control groups in the pre- and post-test stages showed that all variables in the TRX group were significantly different except for the scores of square hop test (p=0.188) and side hop test (p=0.463). In the analysis of covariance for the variables after the intervention, the p for all variables was less than 0.05. Therefore, the effect of TRX exercises on upper and lower extremity performance was significant.

Discussion
The results of this study showed the significant effect of six weeks of TRX exercises on upper and lower extremity performance of non-athlete middle-aged women with LCS. This can be caused by increasing the strength and efficiency of the core muscles. Due to the novelty of its method, TRX can improve the intensity of core stability exercises simply by changing the lumbar angle or by including balance exercises. On the other hand, during TRX exercises, a coordinated and integrated system is used for neuromuscular coordination. Considering that these exercises require a sense of balance to stabilize the body on an unstable surface, they can cause coordination and bilateral activation of the neuromuscular system.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study has ethical approval from the ethics committee of the Sports Sciences Research Center (Code: IR.SSRC.REC.1400.125). All participants signed an informed consent form..

Funding
This article was extracted from the master’s thesis of Mojdeh Fattahi registered by Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Authors' contributions
Conceptualization: Mojdeh Fattahi, Mohammad Rahimi and Shahin Akhdar; Methodology: Mojdeh Fattahi, Mohammad Rahimi and Aynollah Naderi; Investigation and Writing – Original Draft: Mojdeh Fattahi and Shahin Akhdar; Writing–Review and Editing: All Authors. 

Conflicts of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank all the women participated in this study for their cooperation.


References
  1. Pau M, Arippa F, Leban B, Corona F, Ibba G, Todde F, et al. Relationship between static and dynamic balance abilities in Italian professional and youth league soccer players. Phys Ther Sport. 2015; 16(3):236-41. [DOI:10.1016/j.ptsp.2014.12.003] [PMID]
  2. Ng A, Hayes MJ, Polster A. Musculoskeletal disorders and working posture among dental and oral health students. Healthcare. 2016; 4(1):13. [DOI:10.3390/healthcare4010013] [PMID] [PMCID]
  3. Nikravan-Golsefid F, Ebrahimi Atri A, HashemiJavaheri A. [A comparison of musculoskeletal disorders of neck and shoulder girdle in male computer users with and without physical activity (Persian)]. Sport Sci  Health Res. 2015; 7(2):205- 20. [Link]
  4. Sorensen CJ, Norton BJ, Callaghan JP, Hwang CT, Van Dillen LR. Is lumbar lordosis related to low back pain development during prolonged standing? Man Ther. 2015; 20(4):553-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.math.2015.01.001] [PMID] [PMCID]
  5. Naderi A, Baloochi R, Jabbari F, Eslami R. [Comparison between the effects of core stability exercises and neuromuscular exercises on dynamic balance and lower limb function of athletes with functional ankle instability (Persian). Sci J Kurdistan Univ Med Sci. 2016; 21(4):61-72.  [Link]
  6. Nadler SF, Malanga GA, Bartoli LA, Feinberg JH, Prybicien M, Deprince M. Hip muscle imbalance and low back pain inathletes: Influence of core strengthening. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34(1):9-16. [DOI:10.1097/00005768-200201000-00003] [PMID]
  7. Bae WS, Lee HO, Shin JW, Lee KC. The effect of middle and lower trapezius strength exercises and levator scapulae and upper trapezius stretching exercises in upper crossed syndrome. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016; 28(5):1636-9. [DOI:10.1589/jpts.28.1636] [PMID] [PMCID]
  8. Andreenko E, Mladenova S. Changes in somatotype characteristics in the middle-aged Bulgarian men. Nutr Hosp. 2015; 32(6):2910-5. [PMID]
  9. Naderi A, Rahimi M, Yazdian A. [Effect of six weeks of TRX exercise on general and specific motor function and quality of life of middle-aged women with lumbar motor control impairment (Persian)]. J Prevent Med. 2023; 10 (1):72-87. [Link]
  10. Baluchi R, Giasi A, Naderi A. [A survey of selective movement therapy effectiveness on dynamic postural control of patients with patellofemoralpain syndrome (Persian)]. Sci J Ilam Uni Med Sci. 2011; 19(1):17-23. [Link]
  11. Gordon R, Bloxham S. A systematic review of the effects of exercise and physical activity on non-specific chronic low back pain. Healthcare (Basel). 2016; 4(2):22. [DOI:10.3390/healthcare4020022] [PMID] [PMCID]
  12. Boyd RN, Morris ME, Graham HK. Management of upper limb dysfunction in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review. Eur J Neurol. 2001; 8(Suppl 5):150-66. [DOI:10.1046/j.1468-1331.2001.00048.x] [PMID]
  13. Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P, Leviton A, Paneth N, Dan B, et al. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy, April 2005. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005; 47(8):571-6. [DOI:10.1017/S001216220500112X] [PMID] 
  14. Shavikloo J, Norasteh A. TRX training reduce injury Rates in Futsal Athletes, as Measured by the Functional Movement Screening Test? Int J Sports Sci Med. 2019; 3(2):060-4. [Link]
  15. Kosmata A. Functional exercise training with the trx suspension trainer in a dysfunctional, elderly population [MA thesis]. Boone: Appalachian State University. [Link]
  16. Warren M, Smith CA, Chimera NJ. Association of the functional movement screen with injuries in division I athletes. J Sport Rehabil. 2015; 24(2):163-70. [PMID]
  17. Aslani M, Kalantariyan M, Minoonejad H. [Effect of functional training with TRX on the balance of middle-aged men (Persian)]. Sci J Rehabil Med. 2019; 7(4):80-9. [Link]
  18. khorshid Sokhangu M, Rahnama N, Etemadifar M, Rafeii M. [The effect of neuromuscular exercises on balance and motor function in women with multiple sclerosis (Persian)]. Stud Med Sci . 2018; 29(5):362-71. [Link]
  19. Bandura A. Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health Educ Behav. 2004; 31(2):143-64. [DOI:10.1177/1090198104263660] [PMID]
  20. Bliss LS, Teeple P. Core stability: The centerpiece of any training program. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005; 4(3):179-183. [DOI:10.1007/s11932-005-0064-y] [PMID]
  21. Abdolahzadeh M, Daneshmandi H. [The effect of an 8-week NASM corrective exercise program on upper crossed syndrome (Persian)]. J Sport Biomech 2019; 5(3):156-67. [Link]
  22. Hajihosseini E, Norasteh A, Shamsi A, Daneshmandi H. [The comparison of effect of three programs of strengthening stretching and comprehensive on upper crossed syndrome (Persian)]. J Rehabil Sci. 2015; 11(1):51-61. [Link]
  23. Armijo-Olivo S. A new paradigm shift in musculoskeletal rehabilitation: Why we should exercise the brain? Braz J Phys Ther. 2018; 22(2):95-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.bjpt.2017.12.001] [PMID] [PMCID]
  24. Arshadi R, Ghasemi GA, Samadi H. Effects of an 8-week selective corrective exercises program on electromyography activity of scapular and neck muscles in persons with upper crossed syndrome: Randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther Sport. 2019; 37:113-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.ptsp.2019.03.008] [PMID]
  25. Yoo WG. Effect of thoracic stretching, thoracic extension exercise and exercises for cervical and scapular posture on thoracic kyphosis angle and upper thoracic pain. J Phys Ther Sci. 2013; 25(11):1509-10. [DOI:10.1589/jpts.25.1509] [PMID] [PMCID]
  26. Naderi A, Katzman WB. Effects of a 12-week global corrective exercise intervention on sway back posture in young adults: A randomized controlled trial. Int J Health Stud. 2019; 5(3): 11-16. [Link]
Type of Study: Orginal | Subject: General
Received: 2022/03/9 | Accepted: 2023/09/3 | Published: 2023/09/1

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb